Anabaptist Timeline

Andrii Zvorygin yN-PH2196 mtH2a1 * & GPT4


1 Disclaimer

This timeline seeks to portray the journey of disciples of God particularly Anabaptists and that God is continuing to work for the salvation of all the Earth. At times revealing himself in other ways to other nations as Jesus predicted (Matthew 21:33-34). Remember to ”Desist, and know that I [am] God, I am exalted among nations, I am exalted in the earth.” (YLT Psalm 46:10). As always ”Test all things, and hold firmly that which is good.” (1 Thessalonians 5:21)

2 Early Christian Era 1-500AD

30-33: Ministry, Death and Ressurrection of Yehoshua Ben Yosef (Jesus Christ). He had visions and performed many miracles. He taught about the Kingdom of God is within, and that forgiveness, compassion, love and kindness, as well as purity of heart were how to get there, processes of sanctification and divinization. After Jesus upset the animal sacrifice tables at the temple, the Jews believed he was the son of the devil, had him killed on the passover, after which there was an earthquake and the temple shroud tore in two and the Jews began to persecute his disciples.

33: Outpouring of the Holy Spirit, Early Christian apostles and disciples perform miracles and have divine revelations.

35-44: Church in Jerusalem established led initially by Peter but then by James the Just, the brother of Jesus, this church is considered the ”Mother Church” in Christianity, John participates.

36: Stephen, the First Christian Martyr: Acts 7:54-60

44: Persecution by Herod Agrippa I, John flees to Asia Minor.

50-110: The books and letters which comprise the New Testament are written.

49-52: 1 Thessalonians is written by Paul.

40s-60s: Paul’s Ministry, Paul of Tarsus begins his missionary journeys to Asia Minor, Greece, and eventually Rome. He focuses on converting Gentiles.

49 or 50: Council of Jerusalem, A meeting is held to discuss the issue of circumcision for Gentile converts. James and Peter, leading figures in the early church, both attend.

50-70: Gospel of Mark is written.

51-52: 2 Thessalonians written by Paul.

50-60: Book of James is written

53-57: 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians is written by Paul.

54-58: Galatians is written by Paul.

55-56: Philippians is written by Paul.

56-57: Romans is written by Paul.

60-62: Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, written by Paul while in Prison.

60-64: 1 Peter is written, by Apostle Peter.

60-65: Hebrews is written.

62-64: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, written by Paul or associate.

64: Persecution under Nero; Peter and Paul traditionally believed to be martyred in Rome.

60-85: Gospel of Matthew is written.

66–70: First Jewish-Roman War, Resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD, as Jesus predicted in Matthew 24:1-2. The Western Wall is a part of the retaining structure of the temple which remains to the present.

70–135: Formation of Rabbinic Judaism, With the destruction of the Temple, Rabbinic Judaism begins to take shape. Ethical conduct, study of Torah, and prayer take center stage. Yeshua (Jesus) is typically charged with leading Israel astray, practicing sorcery, and even apostasy.

80-90: 2 Peter is written, authorship debated.

80-90: Council of Jamnia, Jewish leaders, separate from the early Christian movement, decide on the canon of the Hebrew Bible, effectively excluding Christian texts.

65–95: Gospel of Luke is written.

85-95: 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, written by John the Apostle.

90-100: Jude written by Jude, brother of James and Jesus.

95-96: John writes the Book of Revelation during his exile on the Isle of Patmos.

80–110: Gospel of John is written.

96-110: Death of John the Apostle, traditionally said to have been the only apostle to die of old age.

2nd Century:

Writings of early church ascetics, including Ignatius of Antioch, who wrote about the importance of following Jesus even unto martyrdom.

35-107: Ignatius of Antioch, A disciple of the Apostle John, Ignatius writes letters en route to his martyrdom in Rome, emphasizing the divinity of Christ and the importance of unity in the Church.

69–155: St. Polycarp of Smyrna, A disciple of John the Apostle, Polycarp reportedly performs various miracles. During his martyrdom, he is miraculously unharmed by fire before being stabbed to death. He is known for his piety and wisdom.

34–156: In China, Zhang Daoling, Founder of the Way of the Celestial Masters, a Daoist sect. He emphasized moral living, healing, and compassion.

Gnostic ideas infiltrate early Christian communities. Gnostic texts like the Gospel of Thomas and Gospel of Mary Magdalene circulate. Emphasis on secret knowledge over discipleship, community, and love.

160: Papias of Hierapolis is another figure traditionally said to be a disciple of John. His writings preserve early Christian traditions.

180: ”Against Heresies”, Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon, writes ”Against Heresies,” critiquing Gnostic teachings as heretical and defending orthodoxy. He emphasizes discipleship and love as per mainstream Christian beliefs.

190: Clement of Alexandria is significantly influenced by the Johannine writings and the traditions of those said to be John’s disciples.

3rd Century: Persecutions under various Roman emperors, especially Decius and Valerian.

202-210: Septimius Severus’ Persecution, a Roman Emperor, persecutes Christians and Jews who convert to Christianity. The focus is primarily on converts rather than established communities.

220-276: Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, is born around 216 AD and lives until approximately 276 AD. Manichaeism incorporates elements of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Buddhism into a Gnostic framework. It emphasizes dualism and cosmic struggle but lacks focus on Jesus’ teachings of compassion and love. Mani is eventually imprisoned and dies in jail.

250: Decian Persecution - Empire-wide persecution of Christians under Emperor Decius.

253-260 AD: Valerian’s Persecution, Emperor Valerian initially tolerates Christians but later turns against them, ordering the execution of Christian leaders and demanding sacrifices to Roman gods.

185-254: Origen of Alexandria, Known for his intellectual rigor, Origen writes on a wide range of theological issues. He undergoes a profound spiritual journey but faces later condemnation for some of his speculative teachings.

285: Emperor Diocletian divides the empire into the Eastern and Western Roman Empires.

251–356: St. Anthony of Egypt. Author of Christian monasticism, emphasis on asceticism and prayer. Reported to have done bilocation and miraculous healings. Anthony experiences intense spiritual warfare, visions, and revelations in the desert. His life is filled with miracles and exorcisms.

4th Century:

311-5th century Donatists: A group in North Africa who emphasized purity of the church following Jesus’s teachings and became martyrs due to their stance.

312: Conversion of Constantine; Christianity becomes a favored religion.

313: Edict of Milan Legalizes Christianity in the Empire.

325: Council of Nicaea; establishment of orthodox Christian doctrine. It is where Yehoshua Ben Yosef is renamed Jesus Christ, and the New Testament is standardized. Emphasis on orthodoxy leads to persecution of non-conforming (heretical) groups such as the Arians, creating the first major division in the mainline Church. Nicenes believe the Son and the Father are one (John 10:30), and Arians believe the Father is greater than the Son (John 14:28). They forgot or ignored John 13:34-35, Matthew 15:8-9, and Matthew 23:23-24.

330: Foundation of the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople.

296–373: Athanasius of Alexandria, Defender of the Nicene Creed, Athanasius is reputed to have performed miracles. He writes ”The Life of St. Anthony,” highlighting the spiritual power and miracles of the desert monk. He is exiled five times due to Arian influence.

337-361 AD: Arian Ascendancy under Constantius II, Constantius II, who is sympathetic to the Arians, ascends to the throne. He attempts to impose Arianism on the empire, persecuting Nicene leaders.

350: Nag Hammadi Library, A collection of Gnostic texts are hidden in a jar and buried in Nag Hammadi, Egypt. These texts contain a variety of beliefs, some emphasizing Jesus’ mystical teachings but lacking mainstream focus on love, discipleship, and community.

314-385: In China, Dao An A prominent Buddhist monk who played a crucial role in the propagation of Buddhism in China. Buddhism inherently teaches compassion for all sentient beings.

4th century: In China, Miao Shan, identified with Kuan Yin (Chinese version of the Most Loving God), known for her self-sacrifice and deep compassion. Refused marriage to maintain her spiritual path and healed and forgave those who wronged her. Ascended to the heavens like Elijah and Jesus.

329–379: Basil the Great, One of the Cappadocian Theologians, Basil is known for his theological insights and care for the poor. He significantly influences monasticism, emphasizing community life and charitable works.

378: Battle of Adrianople, The Goths, who are Arians, defeat the Roman Army. The event does not change the theological landscape but demonstrates the presence of Arian tribes in the empire.

330-379: St. Macrina the Younger, Sister of St. Gregory of Nyssa and St. Basil the Great, she led a monastic life, and her sanctity was said to shine forth visibly. Indicating her level of divinization achieved a level of transfiguration.

380: Christianity becomes the official state religion of the Roman Empire.

381: First Council of Constantinople, The Nicene Creed is reaffirmed and expanded. Arians are definitively marginalized within the Roman Empire, but Arianism continues among the Germanic tribes of the Western Roman Empire.

382-405: Jerome translates the Bible into Latin (the Vulgate), which becomes the standard text for the Roman Catholic Church. The translation itself isn’t an act of censorship, but the Latin language becomes a barrier for common people who don’t speak Latin. Jerome also experiences a famous vision of Judgment Day, which deeply affects his spirituality and penitential practices.

300–391: Saint Macarius the Great, one of the earliest Desert Ascetics, living as a hermit in the Egyptian desert. He is known for his intense asceticism, wisdom, and spiritual insights. Once, while he was praying in his cell at night, a monk saw his cell become like fire, and when he peeked inside, he saw Macarius lifted from the ground, his hands raised to the heavens and his entire being radiating light. Indicating his divinization led to a high level of transfiguration.

335-394: Saint Gregory of Nyssa, As one of the Cappadocian Theologians, Gregory of Nyssa was instrumental in shaping the theology of the early Christian church. His emphasis on the transcendence of God, the journey of the soul toward God. When he was imprisoned for his faith, his face shone in the darkness of his cell, illuminating it with a divine light, indicating his divinization achieved a level of transfiguration.

394: Battle of the Frigidus - Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius I, a staunch Nicene Christian, defeats the pagan Western Roman usurper Eugenius and his Frankish general Arbogastes. Alaric, leader of the Visigoths and an Arian Christian, fights on the side of Theodosius. The battle marks a turning point in consolidating the power of Nicene Christianity over Arianism and paganism within the Roman Empire.

5th Century:

Early 400s to 6th century Pelageans: Pelagius, a British monk, begins teaching in Rome. He emphasizes the inherent goodness of humanity and the importance of free will. Pelagians believed that humans could choose to follow Jesus’s commandments using their own free will without divine intervention. Pelagians believed in the possibility of direct moral action in line with God’s will, emphasizing personal responsibility and piety.

410: Sack of Rome by the Visigoths led by the Arian King Alaric, humbling Rome and freeing 50,000 slaves from bondage.

411-412: Councils of Carthage - Pelagian views are condemned at local North African councils. Augustine of Hippo plays a significant role in articulating the case against Pelagianism, emphasizing the necessity of divine grace for salvation.

415: Council of Diospolis - Pelagius is acquitted of heresy charges, but the controversy continues to simmer within the church.

416-418: Papal involvement - Pope Innocent I and later Pope Zosimus receive appeals concerning the Pelagian controversy. Innocent I initially condemns Pelagius but Zosimus initially declares him orthodox before reversing his stance under pressure from North African bishops.

418: Council of Carthage (again) - Pelagianism is once again condemned. This time the condemnations are upheld by Rome, marking a significant setback for the movement.

354-430: Augustine of Hippo, After a dramatic conversion experience that he attributes to divine intervention, Augustine becomes a major Christian philosopher and theologian. His works like ”Confessions” and ”City of God” become cornerstones of Christian thought.

431: Council of Ephesus, confirming the Virgin Mary’s title as Theotokos or ’Mother of God’. While the council primarily deals with Nestorianism, it also confirms the previous condemnations of Pelagianism.

360-435: John Cassian, often considered a link between the Desert Ascetics and later Western monasticism, incorporates teachings that reflect the spirituality of the Gospel of John, especially the concepts of divine intimacy and the pursuit of holiness.

451: Council of Chalcedon defines the two natures of Christ, leading to divisions within the Christian world.

476: Fall of the Western Roman Empire

3 Early Middle Ages 500-1000AD

6th to 10th Century:

6th-7th centuries: The Desert Ascetics, monastic Christian hermits living primarily in the Scetes desert of Egypt, often reflect Johannine themes in their sayings and writings. Their focus on a personal relationship with Christ, internal transformation, and sacrificial love mirror the spiritual depths found in John’s writings.

500-547: St. Benedict of Nursia, Founder of the Benedictine Order, Benedict is famous for his Rule which becomes a cornerstone for Western monasticism. Miracles and prophetic abilities are attributed to him. He emphasizes humility and obedience.

500s–600s: Babylonian Talmud Compiled, Compilation of Jewish oral law and discussions among Rabbis. Focus on ethical conduct, justice, and charity. In the Talmud Yeshua (Jesus) is said to be in hell.

527-565: Emperor Justinian’s Reign of the Byzantine Empire. Reconquest of parts of the Western Roman Empire and codification of Roman law. He replaces the pope and rewrites church doctrines, removing reincarnation.

440-528: Bodhidharma, As the initiator of Chan Buddhism in China, he underscored meditation and mindfulness, both of which inherently promote compassion and benevolence.

529: The Second Council of Vienne, under Emperor Justinian, suppresses non-Catholic Christian sects and makes a determined effort to standardize Christian doctrine to make it convenient for running his Empire. The Greek lay people of the Byzantine Empire are unable to read the Latin bible which becomes the only authorized translation and are forced to submit to the Roman Catholic hierarchy.

579-649: John Climacus, also known as John of the Ladder, writes ”The Ladder of Divine Ascent,” a work that profoundly influences Eastern Orthodox monasticism. The text shares affinities with Johannine spirituality, especially in its teachings on love, humility, and ascetic struggle for purity of heart.

589 AD: Third Council of Toledo, The Visigothic Kingdom in Spain converts from Arianism to Nicene Christianity. This marks a significant decline in the prevalence of Arianism in Europe.

600-800 Paulicians: Originating in Armenia and later moving to Bulgaria, this group criticized the Byzantine Church’s perceived corruption and deviation from biblical teachings and were persecuted for it. They valued a direct relationship with God and the New Testament, particularly Paul’s writings. Paul’s writings are replete with calls to discipleship and following the commandments of Jesus. They practiced adult baptism.

610: God disappointed by Rome/Byzantium gives Prophet Muhammad his first revelation. As Jesus predicted (Matthew 21:33-34). Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him, begins to preach the Quran or a recitation, about the Most Merciful, Most Compassionate God in Mecca.

622: Muhammad and his followers migrate from Mecca to Medina (Hijra), marking the beginning of the Islamic calendar. 630: Muhammad and his followers conquer Mecca. 632: Muhammad dies; the Rashidun Caliphate begins.

637: Muslim forces conquer Jerusalem.

700s: Early Sufi ascetics begin to appear, emphasizing piety and asceticism. These figures bear some resemblance to Christian hermits and ascetics.

711: Muslim forces enter the Iberian Peninsula, initiating a period of Muslim rule in much of Spain and Portugal that lasts until 1492.

726-731: Emperor Leo III Initiates Iconoclasm in the Byzantine Empire, bans the veneration of religious images, arguing that it goes against the Commandments.

732: The Battle of Tours halts the northward advance of Islam in Europe.

754: Council of Hieria, This council of Iconoclast clergy decrees that the veneration of icons is heretical. It’s perceived by some as an attempt to purify Christian practices, aligning them more closely with the teachings of Jesus and his disciples.

760-850: in Tibet, Padmasambhava emananation of the most compassionate God Avalokitesvara, introduces Vajrayana Buddhism to Tibet, with a focus on compassion, divinization and discipleship, with miraculous abilities and mastery over life and death, at the end of his life he achieves rainbow body which is similar to Christ’s resurrected light body.

787: Second Council of Nicaea, This council reinstates the veneration of icons, stating they help believers in their personal discipleship journey by focusing devotion. The Iconophile belief that icons could inspire faithfulness to Jesus’ teachings gains official support.

788-820: in India, Adi Shankaracharya, Advocated the realization of the non-dual nature of the self (Atman) and the ultimate reality (Brahman). Like Jesus, Shankaracharya emphasized love, unity, and the omnipresence of the divine. He was one of first notable figures to achieve Jivanmukti the state of ”liberation while alive” a form of divinization.

800: Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor, fostering Christian identity in Europe as distinct from the Islamic world. Inaugurating the Dark Ages of Europe characterized by much persecution.

714-801: Rabia of Basra (Islam/Sufism), An early Muslim saint and Sufi mystic known for her intense love and devotion to God. Stories of her life suggest she often was surrounded by a radiant light during her devotions. Indicating her divinization achieved a level of transfiguration.

800s-900s: As Europe enters what are often called the ”Dark Ages,” literacy rates decline among laypeople. The monastic communities are often the only literate groups, further keeping the Bible (in Latin) out of the hands of the common people.

800-900: Development of Dzogchen or the ”Great Perfection” in Tibet which focused on direct experiences of mind, divinization, compassion and importance of discipleship. This is a lineage of people many of who after years of compassioned discipleship and contemplation achieve rainbow bodies, like that of Christ.

810: Death of Rabia of Basra, a prominent female Sufi mystic who emphasized the love of God in a manner resonant with Christian mysticism.

815: Leo V of Byzantium reinstates iconoclasm. Once again, the debate sparks concerns about whether veneration aids or detracts from the discipleship of Jesus Christ.

842: The End of Iconoclasm. Under Empress Theodora, the veneration of icons is restored. The Feast of Orthodoxy is established to celebrate the restoration of icons, seen by some as helpful in the discipleship journey.

863-869: Mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius create the Glagolitic alphabet, a precursor to Cyrillic. They focus on translating Christian texts into local languages to make teachings more accessible, emphasizing a life lived according to Christ’s teachings.

809–877: St. Paschasius Radbertus, Carolingian theologian, his mystical vision of the Eucharist shapes the doctrine of transubstantiation, making him one of the earliest theologians to elaborate on the ”Real Presence” of Christ in the Eucharist.

826–901: St. Methodius of Constantinople, Byzantine theologian, he is significant for his role in resolving the Photian Schism, emphasizing the role of love and unity in the Church.

900-1100 Bogomils: Evolving from the Paulicians, they spread in the Byzantine Empire and criticized the Orthodox Church’s materialism and rituals. Believing in direct communion with God, they followed Jesus’s New Testament teachings, practicing asceticism and adult baptism.

922: Al-Hallaj is executed for his bold proclamations of divine love and unity, including his famous declaration ”Ana al-Haqq” (I am the Truth). His sacrifice and intense love for God have been compared to Christian martyrs.

879–929: St. Symeon the New Theologian, An Eastern Orthodox mystic, Symeon experiences intense mystical visions and writes detailed accounts of his experiences. His teachings stress immediate experience with the Divine.

969: The Fatimid dynasty takes control of Egypt and parts of North Africa, leading to Sunni-Shi’a tensions that also affect Christian communities.

988: Christianization of Kievan Rus’, Grand Prince Vladimir I of Kiev converts to Christianity, leading to the mass baptism of his subjects. The adoption of Christianity includes monastic traditions that stress the importance of following Christ’s teachings.

871 – 989: in China, Chen Tuan, Taoist sage known for meditation and inner alchemy. Emphasized virtuous living and spiritual cultivation.

11th to 13th Century:

950–1002: St. Romuald, Founder of the Camaldolese Order, he is noted for his deep spiritual insights and hermit lifestyle. His disciples record visions and miracles associated with him.

1017–1137: in India, Ramanuja, Emphasized loving devotion to God (Vishnu) and surrendering to His will. Much like the concept of ”Love the Lord your God with all your heart,” Ramanuja stressed total surrender and devotion to the divine. Achieved Jivanmukti/divinization.

950–1022: St. Nilus of Calabria, Initially a Byzantine official, he later becomes a monk and hermit. His writings are deeply mystical, emphasizing the role of humility and asceticism in approaching God.

1054: The Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

1052-1135: Milerpa lives in Tibet spreading teachings of transformation through compassion, akin to Christian concepts of redemption. He achieves rainbow body.

1072: Death of Al-Ghazali, who sought to integrate Sufi spirituality into mainstream Islamic practices. His stress on inner transformation can be seen as similar to Christian ideals of sanctification.

1079: Berengar of Tours is forced to recant his views challenging the church’s teachings on the Eucharist. This event showcases the church’s authority in dictating how the Bible should be interpreted.

1096-1291AD: The Crusades Series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church to reclaim holy lands.

1095–1099: The First Crusade is launched in part to reclaim Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Jerusalem is captured in 1099.

1098-1179: Hildegard of Bingen, A German abbess, visionary, and polymath, Hildegard claims to have visions from a young age. Her extensive writings and compositions have made her a significant figure in Christian mysticism. She is consulted by and advises bishops, popes, and kings, suggesting her insights were respected during her lifetime.

11th-13th Century Cathars/Albigenses: Seen in Southern France, these groups, possibly extending Bogomilism, criticized the Catholic Church’s greed and corruption. Following Jesus in the New Testament, the Cathar leaders lived simply and emphasized a personal divine connection, practicing a unique form of adult baptism. But were heavily persecuted.

1181–1226: St. Francis of Assisi. Founder of the Franciscan order, focused on poverty, compassion, and connection to nature. First recorded stigmatic; received the stigmata resembling the wounds of Christ.

1141-1209: Life of Ahmad al-Rifa’i, who promoted practices like communal dhikr (remembrance of God), which may evoke comparisons to Christian liturgical worship.

1147–1149: Second Crusade ends in failure for the ”Holy” Roman Empire.

1187: Saladin captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders. He was known for his justice, mercy, compassion, charity, respect for other religions and ethical conduct.

1170–80: Peter Waldo commissioned a cleric from Lyon to translate the New Testament into the vernacular ”Romance” (Franco-Provençal) Waldensians: Started by Peter Waldo around 1173 in Lyon, this group emphasized following Jesus’s teachings particularly on simple living and poverty, vernacular Bible reading, and lay preaching. They criticized the Catholic Church’s luxury and veneration practices, focusing on a direct relationship with God. Despite persecution, they endured.

1199: Pope Innocent III, banned secret meetings (which he labeled as occultis conventiculis, or ”hidden assemblies”) in which the Bible was freely discussed.

 1200s: The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) places restrictions on lay preaching and Bible reading, mostly to combat heresy. This is one of the more formal steps to keep the Bible away from common interpretation.

13th Century The Inquisition begins: Church courts set up to suppress heresy.

1204: Crusaders sack Constantinople and establish the Latin Empire.

1207-1273: Life of Rumi, whose Mathnawi and other works have universally appealed for their emphasis on divine love and oneness with God.

1215-1297: Mechthild of Magdeburg, A German mystic and a Beguine, she writes ”The Flowing Light of the Godhead,” emphasizing the importance of a personal relationship with God. Her ideas face some resistance from the Church.

1194-1253: St. Clare of Assisi, Founder of the Poor Clares. While lying ill in 1252, she is believed to have shone with a radiant light so much so that the sisters in her room had to shield their eyes. Indicating she achieved divinization and a notable level of transfiguration.

1261: Byzantines reclaim the city from the Latin Empire.

1291: Fall of Acre, the last Crusader stronghold in the Holy Land.

4 Renaissance 1300AD-1600AD

14th Century:

1253-1310: Marguerite Porete, A French mystic, she writes ”The Mirror of Simple Souls,” a book that lands her in trouble with the Inquisition. She is eventually burned at the stake for heresy in Paris in 1310.

1315-1390: Life of Ibn Khaldun, who critiqued some Sufi practices but also acknowledged the piety and love for God that many Sufis exhibited.

1320s-1384: John Wycliffe: An English theologian, Wycliffe criticized church practices and championed an English Bible translation. His followers, the Lollards (1300s-1500s), critiqued the Catholic Church’s corruption and certain doctrines. His emphasis on the Bible led to a renewed focus on the teachings and commandments of Jesus. Prioritizing the Bible, they advocated for its accessibility in vernacular languages and emphasized living by its teachings.

1337-1351: Hesychasm Controversy. Theological debates occur over Hesychasm, a monastic tradition in Slavic Orthodoxy that focuses on inner stillness and unity with God through prayer, a form of ascetic discipleship.

1342-1416: Julian of Norwich, An English anchoress, she writes ”Revelations of Divine Love” based on her visions. She discusses the notion of God as a figure of ultimate love and compassion. Her works are not widely circulated at the time but gain prominence later.

1347–1380: : St. Catherine of Siena. Known for her letters and dialogue which discuss spiritual growth and unity with God. Experienced mystical visions and miracles, including levitation during prayer.

1308-1364: Longchenpa, a Dzogchen master, furthers the tradition with his writings, emphasizing contemplative practice and direct experience of mind, akin to Christian mysticism. He is said to have achieved rainbow body or resurrection.

1382: Wycliffe’s English Bible translation emerges, laying groundwork for future Protestant Reformation concepts.


Brethren of the Common Life (late 14th-16th Century) Emerging in the Netherlands, this group critiqued the Church’s increasing distance from the laypeople and the worldly behaviors of the clergy. They advocated for a return to the simple, devout life that Jesus lived and taught and an individual relationship with God.

1357-1419: Tsongkhapa, Founder of the Gelug School. Emphasizing ethical behavior and moral conduct, in line with Christian ethics.

1412-1416: Joan of Arc, Claiming divine guidance, she leads French troops in the Hundred Years’ War. Captured and sold to the English, she is eventually burned at the stake for heresy.

1418-1427: Thomas à Kempis writes ”The Imitation of Christ,” one of the most popular Christian devotional books. It emphasizes humility, obedience, and a simple life—themes resonant with Johannine spirituality.

1440: Johannes Gutenberg invents the movable-type printing press in Mainz, Germany.

1453: Fall of Constantinople: The city falls to the Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire.

1455: The Gutenberg Bible is printed, becoming the first major book printed using movable type.

1487: Publication of ”Malleus Maleficarum”, This infamous witch-hunting manual legitimizes the persecution of so-called witches, often women accused of communing with spirits or the Devil.

1492: Spanish Reconquista ends, leading to the persecution and expulsion of Jews and Muslims. Many converted Christians (conversos and Moriscos) face suspicion and persecution. Alhambra Decree forces Jews to convert to Christianity or leave. Conversos (converted Jews) still privately maintain Jewish traditions.

5 Reformation and Counter-Reformation 1500s

1500-1600s: Witch Trials, Thousands of people, mostly women, are accused of witchcraft and communicating with spirits. Many are executed

1504-1574: Life of Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty in Persia, which promoted Shi’a Islam but also had deep Sufi influences. He faced persecution and warfare from Sunni Ottoman Empire.

1517: Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Luther’s theses are quickly printed and distributed throughout Germany.

1440-1518: In India, Kabir, Prioritized a personal relationship with God over rituals, with a focus on love and compassion. Kabir’s emphasis on a direct, personal relationship with God mirrors Jesus’s teachings of an individual’s close relationship with the Heavenly Father. Achieved Jivanmukti/divinization.

1521: Luther is excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church. He translates the New Testament into German while in hiding, and it is subsequently printed and distributed.

1525: The Anabaptist movement begins in Zurich, Switzerland. Including Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, and George Blaurock.

1526: Felix Manz becomes the first Anabaptist martyr when he is drowned in Zurich.

1527: Schleitheim Confession: This document, often considered the earliest Anabaptist confession of faith, is adopted in a meeting in Schleitheim, Switzerland. Michael Sattler is a primary author.

1529: First Siege of Vienna by the Ottomans fails, limiting their advance into Europe. Likely because the Radical Reformation blesses Europe with God’s favour once again.

1530: Augsburg Confession is presented to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, itself is a Lutheran document, its presentation and the events surrounding it had significant implications for the Anabaptist movement, highlighting the distinctions and tensions between these two branches of the Reformation.

1530s: Balthasar Hubmaier: A well-known early Anabaptist leader, he wrote many tracts defending Anabaptist beliefs, especially adult baptism.

1534: The Act of Supremacy is passed in England, making the monarch the head of the Church of England. This further cements England’s break from the Catholic Church. While the Act itself didn’t directly address Anabaptism, the overall religious turmoil and the establishment of state churches in Europe often led to persecution of Anabaptists and other minority religious groups who did not conform.

1534-1535: Münster Rebellion: Radical Anabaptists, sometimes referred to as Münsterites, seize control of the city of Münster in Germany. Key figures include Jan Matthys and Jan van Leiden. The episode, marked by extreme beliefs and practices, ends violently with the capture and execution of its leaders.

1536: Menno Simons: A former Roman Catholic priest in the Low Countries, he becomes an Anabaptist leader. He focuses on nonviolence and becomes the namesake of the Mennonites. His writings and leadership help the movement survive and grow, especially after the negative fallout from the Münster Rebellion.

1536: John Calvin publishes the first edition of his ”Institutes of the Christian Religion” in Basel, Switzerland. Calvin’s work laid a foundation for Reformed theology and practice, whereas the Anabaptists developed in a direction that emphasized radical discipleship, community, and separation from worldly power structures.

1469-1539: Guru Nanak Dev Ji the founder of Sikhism. He preached equality, love, and kindness, emphasizing there’s no Hindu, no Muslim, only one universal creator. He also laid the foundation for langar, the community kitchen serving free food to all, exemplifying selfless service. Is believed to have had a divine glow on his face, indicating a level of divinization and transfiguration.

1540s: Jakob Hutter: Leader of the Hutterites, another significant branch of Anabaptism focused on communal living.

1545-1563: The Council of Trent meets in response to the Protestant Reformation. While the primary focus was on the main Protestant reformers (like Luther and Calvin), its decisions and decrees had implications for the Anabaptists, particularly in the reinforcement of doctrines that were directly opposed to Anabaptist beliefs and practices.

1550s: Dirk Willems: Known for his act of compassion when he saved a pursuer who fell through thin ice, only to be captured afterward. He becomes an iconic martyr for the Anabaptist movement.

1501-1556: David Joris, an Anabaptist with prophetic visions and was accused of miracles such as turning water to wine, invisibility and levitation.

1539-1552: Guru Angad Dev Ji promoted the institution of langar and emphasized the importance of community service. He also developed the Gurmukhi script, which is used for writing Punjabi, thus promoting literacy and accessibility to religious texts.

1560s: The spread of Anabaptism continues in the Low Countries, Germany, and other parts of Central Europe despite widespread persecution.

1563: Foxe’s Book of Martyrs is published in England, detailing Protestant martyrdoms, primarily during the reign of Queen Mary I of England.

1515–1582: St. Teresa of Ávila, Reformer of the Carmelite order, writer on mental prayer and Christian meditation. Experienced levitation and intense mystical ecstasies. Her most famous work, ”The Interior Castle,” explores the soul’s relationship with God. She faces initial skepticism but is later canonized and declared a Doctor of the Church.

1542-1591: St. John of the Cross, A Spanish mystic, poet, and Carmelite friar, he is known for works like ”Dark Night of the Soul.” He suffers imprisonment and torture by fellow Carmelites who oppose his reform efforts but is later canonized and recognized as a Doctor of the Church.

1552-1574: Guru Amar Das Ji established various social reforms, opposing caste prejudices and promoting women’s rights. He also expanded the institution of langar and emphasized equality for all.

1574-1581: Guru Ram Das Ji He founded the city of Amritsar, which would later house the Golden Temple, Sikhism’s holiest site. He emphasized the importance of selfless service and community well-being.

6 Early Modern Period

Includes the Age of Discovery, the rise of European colonial empires, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment.

1600s: Eastern European Experience begins. Mennonites, fleeing persecution in the West, find refuge in more tolerant regions, including parts of Poland and the Ukraine. Here, they establish closed, agriculturally-focused communities.

1603–1663: St. Joseph of Cupertino. Known for his simplicity and piety despite being subject to mystical phenomena. Known for frequent levitations during prayer and mass.

1581-1606: Guru Arjan Dev Ji He compiled the Adi Granth, Sikhism’s central religious scripture. Guru Arjan was also responsible for completing the Golden Temple. He became the first Sikh martyr, setting an example of resilience in the face of oppression.

1609: The Baptist movement begins in Amsterdam inspired by Anabaptist Mennonites.

1611: The King James Version of the Bible is published in England.

1618-1648: The Thirty Years’ War ravages Europe. Its religious underpinnings, the resulting socio-political chaos, and widespread persecution had significant repercussions for the Anabaptist communities and their history in Europe.

1632: The Dordrecht Confession of Faith, another significant Anabaptist confession, is adopted in the Netherlands.

1579-1639: John of the Cross, A Flemish mystic, John writes ”The Spiritual Canticle,” emphasizing the soul’s longing for divine union. His teachings are studied but come under scrutiny by Church authorities.

1640-50s: The Quaker (Religious Society of Friends) movement emerges in England. Founded by George Fox, they emphasize pacifism, simplicity and a personal and direct experience of Christ.

1642: Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish-Indian mystic who converted to Sufi Islam, is executed for blasphemy in the Mughal empire. His focus on divine love resonates with aspects of Christian mysticism.

1648-1654: Chmielnicki Uprising, Massacres of Jews in Poland; upheaval paves the way for the rise of Hasidism. Hasidism focuses on joyful service to God, echoing some values emphasized by Jesus.

1652-1667: Nikonian Reforms and Old Believers. Patriarch Nikon initiates religious reforms, leading to a split within the Russian Orthodox Church. Old Believers, who reject the reforms, stress rigorous adherence to traditional rites and practices, akin to strict discipleship, and face persecution.

1650s: Some early Quakers travel to the Continent and encounter Mennonites (a significant Anabaptist group). There’s mutual respect but also doctrinal differences. For instance, Quakers’ emphasis on the ”Inner Light” wasn’t fully aligned with Mennonite teachings.

1649-1651: Diggers a Radical English group that emphasized community ownership and the equality of all people, attempting to establish agrarian communities based on their beliefs

1591-1660: St. Rose of Lima, The first person born in the Americas to be canonized, she practices extreme asceticism and claims to experience divine visions.

1660: The Martyrs’ Mirror, detailing Anabaptist persecution and martyrdom, is published by Thieleman J. van Braght.

1606-1664: Guru Har Gobind Ji Introduced the concept of Mirj-Piri (Temporal Power-Spiritual Sovereignty) and emphasized defending the weak from tyranny.

1638-1682: The Fifth Dalai Lama unites Tibet, emphasizing the role of compassion in leadership and governance.

1683: Initially Quakers and then Mennonites both begin to settle in Pennsylvania, drawn by prominent Quaker William Penn’s promise of religious freedom. They live alongside each other, with both groups influencing the culture and norms of the region.

1683: Second Siege of Vienna fails, marking a turning point in the Ottoman Empire’s fortunes.

1692: Salem Witch Trials, In Salem, Massachusetts, 19 people are executed on charges of witchcraft, accused of consorting with the Devil.

Late 1600s: Jakob Ammann, an Anabaptist leader in Switzerland, advocates for stricter discipline among the Swiss Anabaptists, emphasizing practices like shunning (Meidung) to maintain purity in the church. Disagreements between Ammann and other Anabaptist leaders lead to a schism.

1693: The schism solidifies, and Ammann’s followers become known as the ”Amish,” distinguishing themselves from the larger group of Anabaptists, who were often called ”Mennonites” after Menno Simons.

7 Industrial Revolution 1700s-1800s

A period of major industrialization that began in Britain and later spread to other parts of the world.


Early 18th century: Many Amish and Mennonites migrate to North America to escape persecution and find religious freedom.

1700s: The Pietist movement, emphasizing personal piety and devotion, emerges within the Lutheran Church in Germany. Some Anabaptists and Pietists interact, given their shared emphases on personal religious experience.

1708 Guru Granth Sahib Ji was conferred the title of ”eternal guru” by Guru Gobind Singh, emphasizing the scripture’s central role in guiding Sikh beliefs and practices. Guru Granth Sahib Ji’s teachings emphasize the equality of all humans, love, compassion, and service.

1727: Moravians begin as the Renewed Moravian Church Emphasizing missionary work, personal piety, and communal living.

1730s-1740s: Methodism begins in England under the leadership of John and Charles Wesley. While it starts as a revival within the Church of England, its emphasis on personal conversion and sanctification bears similarities to Anabaptist and Pietist themes.

1740s: Moses Mendelssohn’s Ethical Philosophy. Mendelssohn, the author of the Jewish Enlightenment emphasized moral philosophy that focused on virtues like compassion and love.

1755-1775: Doukhobors began by Silvan Koelsnikov in Nikolskoye, Yekaterinoslav, Russia of modern day Dnipro, Ukraine, following Jesus with pacifism, simple living and a personal connection with God.

1774: The ”Funkite” schism in Pennsylvania leads to the formation of a Mennonite subgroup.

1781: María de los Dolores López The last person to be executed by the Roman Catholic church for heresy.

1782: ”Jerusalem” and the Call for Tolerance. Mendelssohn’s book advocated not just for religious tolerance but also promoted a spirit of general human benevolence, encouraging Jews to adopt ”love thy neighbor” principles that resonate with Jesus’ teachings

1785: The first Mennonite conference (Franconia Mennonite Conference) is organized in Pennsylvania.

1786: The Doukhobors are labeled heretics by the Orthodox Church of Russia.

1786: Mennonites from Pennsylvania, due to a search for good farmland and to escape the American Revolutionary War’s aftermath, start migrating to southern Ontario to the Niagara Peninsula.

1789-1799: During the tumult of the French Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic Wars, many Mennonites in Europe face the imposition of universal military conscription, which challenges their non-resistant stance. During this period, Catherine the Great of Russia invites Mennonites from Prussia to settle in the newly acquired lands in South Russia (present-day Ukraine). They are promised religious freedom and exemption from military service, leading to a significant migration to avoid European military obligations.

8 19th Century

Marked by events like the Napoleonic Wars, the rise of nationalism, and the spread of the industrial revolution.

Early 1800s: Mennonites establish prosperous farming colonies in Russia, such as the Molotschna and Chortitza settlements.

1800s: Additional waves of Mennonite immigrants arrive from Pennsylvania, settling in areas like Waterloo County, Ontario, Canada. This includes both Mennonites and Amish communities.

1800s: The Holiness movement emerges, particularly within Methodism. It emphasizes a ”second work of grace” leading to personal sanctification and a life free from willful sin. This movement has parallels in the Anabaptist focus on living a life of visible sanctity.

1821-1860: In Russia, Optina Pustyn and Staretsdom. Optina Monastery becomes famous for its spiritual elders (starets). These elders guide individuals in deepening their Christian lives, in a manner akin to discipleship.

1826: Nicholas I issued a decree intending to force the assimilation of the Doukhobors through military conscription, prohibiting their meetings, and encouraging conversions to the established church.

1841-1845: around 5,000 Doukhobors were forcibly resettled in Georgia, many of the men being kidnapped, enslaved and murdered by Russia via conscription.

1848: Spiritualism Movement Begins, The Fox sisters claim to contact the spirit world in Hydesville, New York, sparking the Spiritualism movement which emphasizes direct communication with spirits.

1850s-1920s: Golden Age of Spiritualism, Spiritualism becomes a significant religious movement in the United States and Europe, with seances and mediums becoming popular ways of communicating with the spirit world.

1856 Ottoman Decree of Toleration officially grants more rights to Christians and other non-Muslims in their empire.

1858: The General Conference Mennonite Church is formed due to theological disagreements.

1850-1900: The Amish and Mennonite communities begin to experience internal schisms. These are primarily driven by issues like the adaptation to Canadian society, usage of modern farming techniques, and church practices.

1860s: The Old Order Mennonite schism occurs, leading to the formation of a group that resists certain modern practices.

1860s: Jewish writers like Sholem Aleichem wrote stories that, while rooted in Jewish life, spoke to universal themes of compassion, family, and ethical conduct.

1865: Salvation Army founded by William and Catherine Booth, emphasizing both evangelism and social services, they aimed to put faith into action.

1865-1894: St. Theophan the Recluse. His works often highlight a commitment to discipleship-like principles, like continuous prayer and following Christ’s teachings.

1865-1927: Life of Hazrat Inayat Khan, who brought Sufi ideas to the West, emphasizing universal love and harmony, similar to Christian universalist ideas.

1867: The first Pentecostal experiences (like speaking in tongues) are recorded within the Holiness movement, setting the stage for the Pentecostal movement in the 20th century.

1870s: The Russian government begins to implement policies that compromise Mennonite privileges, particularly in regards to military service.

1816-1872: In Tibet, Nyala Pema Dündul, Known for his great compassion and miraculous activities, mirroring some of the miracles attributed to Jesus, achieved the rainbow body at the end of his life.

1874-1880: Concerned about the loss of their privileges, many Mennonites migrate from Russia to the United States and Canada, creating settlements in states like Kansas and provinces like Manitoba.

1844–1879: St. Bernadette of Lourdes, Known for her humility and Marian visions that led to the establishment of the Lourdes pilgrimage. Body found to be incorruptible; exhumed multiple times and found undecayed.

1880s-1890s: Mennonite Brethren missionaries begin work in India, the beginning of a more global outreach.

1882: Founding of the Society for Psychical Research, The Society is established in the UK to examine allegedly paranormal phenomena using scientific methods.

1883: The Canadian federal government starts funding residential schools in partnership with Christian churches (Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, and Presbyterian).

1836-1886: In India, Sri Ramakrishna Paramahams, Celebrated the unity of all religions and the importance of direct mystical experiences. Like Jesus, Ramakrishna spoke of the universal essence of love and divine union, transcending religious boundaries. Achieved Jivanmukti/divinization.

1890: Manitoba abolishes publicly funded denominational schools, including Mennonite private schools.

1891: Jesus in India, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad writes ”Jesus in India,” claiming that Jesus survived the crucifixion, traveled east to escape persecution, and eventually died in Kashmir. This is a stark departure from mainstream Islamic and Christian views.

1897-1904: Ahad Ha’am and Spiritual Zionism, a Zionist thinker distinct from the mainstream political Zionists, advocates for a ”spiritual Zionism.” He believes that the Jewish homeland should serve as a center for Jewish moral and ethical renewal, emphasizing values like compassion and universal love.

1899: Doukhobors immigrate to Canada. Facing increasing persecution in Russia and with the support of writer Leo Tolstoy and the Quakers, about 7,500 Doukhobors emigrate to Canada, settling in what is today Saskatchewan.

9 20th Century

Characterized by two World Wars, the Cold War, decolonization, technological innovations, and major societal changes.

Early 1900s: New Mennonite groups, such as Mennonite Brethren and Evangelical Mennonites, emerge and grow in Ontario, sometimes drawing members from older Mennonite groups.

1906: The Pentecostal movement officially begins on Azusa Street, Los Angeles, emphasizing the gifts of the Holy Spirit, especially speaking in tongues. While distinct from Anabaptism, both movements share an emphasis on the transformative power of a personal religious experience. Many branches of the Pentecostal movement place a strong emphasis on personal holiness and radical discipleship.

1906-1907 The Canadian Government’s new Minister of the Interior Frank Oliver started requiring the registration of land in the name of individual owners. Many Doukhobors refused to comply as they would have to swear and oath of fealty to the monarch, resulting in 1907 in the reverting of more than a third (258,880 acres (1,047.7 km2)) of Doukhobor lands back to the Crown.

1908: The Old Order Amish and the Amish Mennonite churches split in the Midwest over shunning and other practices.

1908: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad dies, but his teachings continue to inspire a following. His discipleship approach often includes aspects from Jesus’ teachings, such as compassion and peace. Bringing ideas of Jesus discipleship to the Islamic world.

1908-1912: 8,000 Doukhobors move to British Columbia near Castlegar.

1914-1925: Sikh Migration, migrating to various parts of the world, are known for their community service and providing relief during crises. This diaspora expanded the reach of Sikh values of selfless service, compassion, and love.

1916: Manitoba enacts the School Attendance Act, making school attendance compulsory for children ages 7 to 14. This legislation targets Mennonites and their private religious schools. Some Mennonites relocate to other provinces, like Saskatchewan and Alberta, or to countries like Mexico and Paraguay, to avoid these regulations and maintain their traditional way of life.

1917: The Russian Revolution greatly impacts Mennonite communities. Many experience violence, famine, and political upheaval.

1917-1918 (World War I): The U.S. introduces the draft. While some Mennonites take non-combatant roles, others face imprisonment for their refusal to participate in any military capacity.

1918–1922 Fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I leads to modern national boundaries, affecting Muslim-Christian interactions.

1920: Under the Indian Act amendment in Canada, attendance becomes mandatory for Indigenous children between the ages of 7 and 15. Children are forcibly taken from their families, leading to traumatic separations.

1920: Edgar Cayce’s Readings, Edgar Cayce becomes famous for his ”life readings” and healing recommendations, which he claims come from a spiritual source.

1920s: The Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) is formed initially to assist Mennonites in southern Russia. With MCC’s aid, thousands of Mennonites leave Soviet Russia for Canada and other places.

1924: Peter Verigin leader of the Doukhobors is assassinated with a train bomb while meeting with Canadian government officials.

1924: Alexandra David-Néel Reports Rainbow Body Phenomenon, a Belgian-French explorer, reports seeing a monk achieve the ”rainbow body,” a state where the physical body is said to dissolve into light. Achieving a rainbow body is seen as the culmination of intense spiritual practice with similarities to Christ’s resurrection.

1929-1953: Soviet Persecution of Christianity. Under Joseph Stalin, the Russian Orthodox Church and its adherents face severe persecution. An underground church emerges with a strong focus on discipleship principles despite the risks.

1839-1953: Ayu Khandro A female Dzogchen practitioner who lived for 115 years and known for her humility, ascetic lifestyle, and immense compassion, characteristics that echo the life of Christ is believed to have achieved the rainbow body

1920s-1930s: After the Russian Revolution, another wave of Russian Mennonites migrates to Canada, particularly Manitoba, but also Saskatchewan and other provinces.

1931: There are 80 residential schools in operation across Canada, with over 17,000 students in attendance

1937-: In China, Cheng Yen, Founder of the Tzu Chi Foundation, a humanitarian organization. Rooted in Buddhist teachings of compassion, she has been instrumental in initiating numerous charitable endeavors.

1930s-1940s: In regions with significant Mennonite populations, compromises are sometimes reached. In some cases, Mennonites are allowed to teach their language (German) and religion in the early grades.

1940-1945 (Between WWI and WWII): In response to WWI experiences, the U.S. improves its conscientious objector status. Mennonites, along with other peace churches, establish Civilian Public Service camps as an alternative to military service during WWII.

1940s: During and after World War II, many Russian Mennonites are displaced. Some are forcibly repatriated to the Soviet Union, others migrate to South America (especially Paraguay and Brazil), and some to Canada and the U.S.

1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR): Canada signs the UDHR, which serves as the foundation for human rights in Canada and worldwide.

1948: Establishment of the State of Israel, Israel becomes a homeland for Jews after millennia of diaspora.

Mid-20th Century: In places like the U.S., there’s a convergence among Anabaptists, Quakers, and other peace churches, especially around issues of pacifism, conscientious objection, and social justice.

1879-1950: Sri Ramana Maharshi, Promoted the ”Who am I?” method of self-inquiry to understand one’s true self. Similar to Jesus’s call for inner transformation and self-understanding, Ramana emphasized the inner journey. Achieved Jivanmukti.

1904–1955: Alexandrina Maria da Costa, Known for her suffering and offering it for the conversion of sinners. Reported to have lived solely on the Eucharist for thirteen years.

1950s-1960s Channeling and the New Age Movement, The broader New Age Movement emerges, emphasizing spiritual growth and enlightenment through various esoteric practices, including channeling spirits and other entities.

1952: A Course in Miracles, Helen Schucman claims that the text of ”A Course in Miracles” was channeled to her by Jesus. The book becomes highly influential in New Age circles.

1950s: The Canadian government’s policy on education and the desire for more traditional education leads some Mennonite groups in Manitoba to move to Mexico and other Latin American countries.

1953 Over a hundred children of the Freedomite Doukhobors were abducted and forcibly interned by government agents in a residential school in New Denver, British Columbia in an assimilation attempt.

1896-1982: Anandamayi Ma, Encouraged deep introspection and realization of the divine within. Her teachings on love, grace, and the omnipresence of the divine resonate with Christ’s teachings on the indwelling spirit and love. Achieved Jivanmukti.

1950s-1982 Many Freedomites protest including through nudism and destruction of public infrastructure, until their children are given back and the government agrees to negotiate instead of forcing itself on them.

1950s-1970s: Multiple schisms occur in Anabaptist communities, leading to the formation of groups like the Orthodox Mennonites and David Martin Mennonites, each with varying practices and beliefs regarding technology, dress, and interaction with the outside world.

1959: Dalai Lama Exiled: Born in 1935, the 14th Dalai Lama gains global recognition for his teachings on compassion and nonviolence, much in line with the teachings of Jesus.

1960 Canadian Bill of Rights: Canada implements its own Bill of Rights. The bill is influenced by Judeo-Christian ethics, though it aims for a universal appeal.

1960s: The Mennonite Church and the General Conference Mennonite Church begin discussing potential merger.

1960s-1970s: Jesus Movement a Christian countercultural movement that emphasized a return to the teachings of Jesus and communal living.

1967: Six-Day War, Israel gains control of Jerusalem, including the area around the Western Wall.

1970s: Seth Material, Jane Roberts claims to channel an entity named Seth, publishing numerous books known as the Seth Material that become highly influential in New Age spirituality.

1970s-present LLResearch begins formally recording their communications with ”the Confederation of Planets in the service to the One Infinite Creator”.

1887–1968: St. Padre Pio, Known for his devotion to prayer, suffering, and care for the sick. Known to have stigmata, bilocation, and other mystical experiences.

1898-1976: Zhou Enlai, As the first Premier of the People’s Republic of China, Zhou Enlai was perceived as a moderating and calming force during the tumultuous years of the Cultural Revolution, exhibiting restraint and compassion.

1963-1982: Social Justice Movement: Various religious groups, including Christian Anabaptists, work for social justice in Canada, influencing public opinion on issues like poverty and discrimination.

1970s The Canadian government begins to close many residential schools. By the end of the 1970s, many schools have closed, though some still operate.

1970s-Present: Jews for Jesus, Movement of Jews who believe Jesus is the Messiah while maintaining Jewish customs. Integration of Jewish tradition with the teachings of Jesus, including love, compassion, and forgiveness.

1970s-1980s: Due to religious persecution under the Soviet regime, many Mennonites in the USSR emigrate to Germany, with some then choosing to move to Canada or Latin America. Concurrently, the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) in Canada begins sponsoring refugees from Southeast Asia, leading to the establishment of some Asian Mennonite congregations in Canada.

1976: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR): Canada becomes a signatory. The covenant aims to ensure that all individuals have access to basic needs like food, housing, and healthcare.

1981-1984: The Law of One (Ra Material), Carla Rueckert, Don Elkins, and Jim McCarty of LLResearch claim to channel an entity named Ra. The channeled material, known as The Law of One, delves into the nature of creation, the universe, and the journey of the soul.

1982: Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Embedded in the Constitution, this becomes a cornerstone of human rights in Canada. Religious organizations, including some with Anabaptist influence, lobby for strong freedom of religion clauses.

1984: Operation Blue Star & Anti-Sikh Riots Despite facing persecution and violence in India, many Sikhs continued to emphasize forgiveness, unity, and community service. The tragic events further strengthened the community’s resolve to help those in need.

1983-1985: The government of B.C. finally sits down to negotiate with the Doukhobors after decades of persecution didn’t achieve their goals of assimilation.

1987: Canada passes Multiculturalism Act allowing people like the Anabaptists, Doukhobors and Indigenous to have their own language and to maintain their own religion and culture across the nation.

1987-Present: Mind and Life Dialogues, Interfaith dialogues between the Dalai Lama and various Christian and other religious scholars, started in 1987. Emphasis on universal ethics and compassion, resonant with many Christian teachings.

Late 1900s: Resurgence in Sufi music and poetry, with figures like Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan bringing Sufi qawwalis to a global audience.

1980s-1990s: Renewed migrations of Mennonites from Mexico, due to economic challenges and a desire to maintain conservative lifestyles, begin. Many settle in Manitoba and establish new colonies.

1990s: Kryon Material, Lee Carroll claims to channel an angelic entity named Kryon, publishing a series of books on spirituality and the shift in human consciousness.

1991-present: Post-Soviet Religious Revival. The fall of the Soviet Union leads to a resurgence in Russian Orthodox Christianity. New monastic communities and lay movements form, often with a strong focus on discipleship and living out the teachings of Christ.

1995: ”Confession of Faith in a Mennonite Perspective” is adopted.

1996: Last government residential school closes in Canada.

1998: Khenpo A-Chö, A Nyingma lama who after a lifetime of compassionate service and meditation, paralleling spiritual goals in Christian discipleship, reportedly achieves the rainbow body.

10 21st Century

Marked by the digital revolution, globalization, and various sociopolitical changes.

2000: Canadian Human Rights Act Review: Various religious communities participate in the discussion, emphasizing the need for a balanced approach to rights that respects religious freedoms.

2000s: Continued growth of urban Mennonite churches, as well as increasing outreach to indigenous communities.

2000s: New Monasticism movement started emphasizing intentional community living, often in impoverished urban settings, they draw from monastic traditions to inform a life of discipleship in the modern world

2000s: Abraham-Hicks Material, Esther Hicks claims to channel a group of spiritual entities known as Abraham. The teachings, focused on the law of attraction, become part of mainstream culture, partly due to ”The Secret” book and film.

2000s to present: Persecution of Sufis in parts of the Islamic world, similar to the persecution of religious minorities including Christians.

2002: The Mennonite Church USA and the Mennonite Church Canada are established after the merger of the Mennonite Church and the General Conference Mennonite Church.

2002: The ”Naked Anabaptist” by Stuart Murray is published, which seeks to explain Anabaptism to a broader audience and those outside traditional Anabaptist communities.

2003: The first Amish in the City reality TV show airs, sparking renewed popular interest in and discussions about Amish life.

2008: The Mennonite World Conference holds its global assembly in Paraguay. Anabaptist communities worldwide participate.

2008: Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper makes a formal apology on behalf of the Canadian government for the residential school system.

2010: The tenth global assembly of the Mennonite World Conference takes place in the U.S., connecting Anabaptist communities from all over the world.

2010s: More progressive Mennonite congregations in Canada begin addressing issues like LGBTQ+ acceptance, environmental stewardship, and indigenous rights, leading to some tensions within the broader Anabaptist community.

2010s: Expansion of Online Spiritual Communities, Websites, YouTube channels, and social media platforms allow for the dissemination of channeled material and other spiritually-oriented teachings to a global audience.

2007-2015: Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Influenced in part by religious organizations, the commission calls for sweeping changes to address the historical and ongoing injustices against Indigenous peoples.

2015: Conservative Mennonite groups in the U.S. face challenges with U.S. law, particularly regarding photography on driver’s licenses, which some deem as violating the Second Commandment’s prohibition of ”graven images.”

2016: The Mennonite Church USA, facing divisions over LGBTQ+ inclusion, sees some conservative churches leave the denomination.

2017: The eleventh global assembly of the Mennonite World Conference takes place in Indonesia, representing a growing and vibrant Anabaptist community in Asia.

2019: Poverty Reduction Act: Various faith groups, including Anabaptist communities, are involved in advocacy for policies aiming to reduce poverty, reflecting their focus on social justice and community welfare.

2019: Discussion of climate change and creation care becomes a growing concern among various Anabaptist communities, leading to initiatives focused on sustainable living and agriculture.

2020-2021: The global COVID-19 pandemic narrative sees diverse responses from Anabaptist communities worldwide.

2020: the Mennonite Church USA holds its convention virtually, emphasizing the significance of adaptability and modern technology within traditional religious circles. Meanwhile, while some communities embrace technology for worship and connection, others, like certain Amish groups, grapple with challenges due to their more isolated and non-technological lifestyles.

2021: Online groups delving into the Law of One and Confederation of Planets material form, in response to the pandemic narrative.

2021: Pastor Henry Hildebrandt, leader of the ”Church of God” in Aylmer, Ontario, Canada, gains attention for his opposition to COVID-19 restrictions, advocating for human rights as enshrined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.